Transcatheter aortic valve implantation: Evaluation of the evidence and synthesis of organizational issues

Aortic valvular stenosis, or narrowing of the valve orifice, is a progressive disease that generally affects patients over the age of 65 years in Western countries and is usually caused by degenerative calcification. Aortic stenosis causes increasing resistance against the ejection of blood from the left ventricle towards the aorta. After symptoms appear (dyspnea, angina, syncope), the disease rapidly progresses causing severe limitation of physical capacity, heart failure, and high risk of mortality. Aortic stenosis represents the third most common cardiovascular disease among adults and the most frequent cardiac valve illness among elderly persons in the industrialized world. Its prevalence is estimated at 2.8% in the population aged 75 and older in the United States. In Quebec, the number of octogenarians will double to about 780,000 persons by 2035, representing about 9% of the total population. Aortic stenosis will thus become more frequent and is expected to have an increasingly important impact on the Quebec health care system.

The objectives of this evaluation are to:

1. Synthesize, via a systematic review, the recent evidence on effectiveness, safety and economic issues related to TAVI using the Cribier-Edwards / Edwards SAPIEN or CoreValve bioprostheses for adult patients with severe, symptomatic aortic stenosis, with an emphasis on clinical results at 1 year; and to

2. Synthesize, via a narrative review, the principal organizational aspects of delivering this procedure, including the selection of patients before implantation and key considerations concerning ethics and the patient’s perspective.