In Norway, breast cancer screening is offered through a publicly funded program to women in the age group 50-69 on a biennial basis. Breast cancer incidence is relatively higher among women in this age group than it is among younger women. The purpose of the screening program is to reduce breast cancer-related mortality by detecting tumors at an earlier stage. The screening technology in current use, known as digital mammography (DM), involves capturing two two-dimensional images of each breast from different angles. One of the limitations of this technology is that tumors may be “masked”, and difficult to detect, especially in dense breasts. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) may, when employed in combination with DM, alleviate this problem by providing a 3D model of the breast constructed on the basis of a series of 2D images. The technology also involves an option to construct “synthetic” 2D images (S2D) similar to a standard digital mammogram. The combined systems have the potential to increase detection rates while reducing the need for patient recall to confirm or rule out the presence of a tumor. However, this means that additional tumors could be detected which do not require treatment during the patient’s lifetime, thus increasing the rate of overdiagnosis. Mammography screening involves radiation exposure, a factor which has to be taken into account when new screening technologies are evaluated.