Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common non-skin cancer in men in Europe. In early stage, prostate cancer is localised and organ-confined. Depend-ing on the risk of progression, the cancerous lesion increases in volume and produces more PSA over time. Localised prostate cancer is often indolent, and has no impact on health; even without treatment. Locally relapsed/recurrent prostate cancer occurs when the cancer is still present or comes back after failed primary therapy . Incidence rates reported by the Interna-tional Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in 2014 varied between 35 and 132 per 100,000 men in European countries .
The target population of this assessment is low-risk and intermediate-risk lo-calised and locally recurrent/relapsed PCa patients without any regional lymph nodes (Nx-N0) and without any distant metastases (Mx-M0). Low-risk is de-fined as prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <10 ng/mL, Gleason Score (GS) <7 and cT1a-T2a. Intermediate-risk is defined as PSA 10-20 ng/mL, or GS 7 or cT2b.